Comer (7) Chapter 3: Models of Abnormality

Practice Questions

 

The following questions have been selected from the author’s test bank for Abnormal Psychology. Every question on the midterm exam or the final exam concerning this chapter will be selected from the following list.

 

NOTE: The number in parentheses before the question is the page number in the textbook where the answer can be found.  If you wish to have the key for this set of questions send me an e-mail with your proposed answers in accordance with the schedule provided under the heading “To Obtain Answer Keys” on this web site.  Be sure to specify the chapter number for which you are seeking the key. I will send you the key in response.

 

 

1. (50) The model of abnormality that cites physical processes as being the key to behavior is the:

A)  biological model

B)  sociocultural model

C)  psychodynamic model

D)  humanistic-existential model

 

2. (67) Henry goes into a fit of depression and self-abuse when anyone criticizes or expresses disapproval. Much of what he does is for the purpose of getting people to like him. Cognitive theorists would say that Henry's depression results in large part from:

A)  modeling

B)  self-efficacy

C)  illogical thinking

D)  unconscious feelings of loss

 

3. (50) The model of abnormality that focuses on unconscious internal processes and conflicts in behavior is the:

A)  cognitive model

B)  behavioral model

C)  sociocultural model

D)  psychodynamic model

 

 

4. (66) If you believe that you can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary, Bandura would say that you had a positive sense of:

A)  overgeneralization

B)  classical conditioning

C)  self-efficacy

D)  modeling

 

 

5.  (50)The model of abnormality that focuses on the role of values and choices in behavior is the:

A)  cognitive model

B)  sociocultural model

C)  psychodynamic model

D)  humanistic-existential model

 

 

6.  (55) Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used most often in the treatment of:

A)  schizophrenia

B)  anxiety disorders

C)  depression

D)  bipolar disorder

 

 

7.  (71)When clients are freed from the insecurities and doubts that prevent self-actualization, they are said to be exhibiting which of the following?

A)  experiencing

B)  conditions of worth

C)  resistance

D)  free association

 

 

8.  (70)The social upheaval and soul searching of the 1960s and 1970s in Western society gave rise to which of the following approaches to therapy?

A)  psychodynamic

B)  humanist and existential

C)  behavioral

D)  cognitive

 

 

9.  (55)People suffering from clinical depression are most likely to benefit from which of the following medications?

A)  Risperdal

B)  Haldol

C)  Zoloft

D)  lithium

 

 

10.  (73)Which of the following would be most likely to use skillful frustration as a part of therapy?

A)  Fritz Perls

B)  Joseph Wolpe

C)  Abraham Maslow

D)  Karen Horney

 

 

11.  (57)Mara's mother is taking a chocolate pudding out of the refrigerator. Which of the following would suggest most strongly that the ego is successfully managing the id?

A)  Mara asks for some pudding in a whiney voice and throws a tantrum when she is denied

B)  Mara dreams about eating some of the delicious-looking pudding

C)  Mara waits for her mother to leave the room, takes a cup of pudding, and sneaks away

D)  Mara reaches right in and grabs some pudding, without asking or waiting for her mother to leav.

 

 

12.  (72)If you were using ELIZA, what would you be doing?

A)  playing a video game designed to teach you healthy cognitive skills

B)  trying to recognize faces portraying various emotions

C)  writing a computer program to manage therapy research

D)  talking to a computer programmed to respond with a client-centered approach

 

 

13. (76) Which model of abnormality would focus on factors such as norms, family structure and support systems, in particular?

A)  behavioral

B)  cognitive-behavioral

C)  gestalt

D)  sociocultural

 

 

14.  (69)A therapist who believes people often hide from their responsibilities, and therefore often feel alienated, depressed, inauthentic—empty—would most likely be:

A)  humanistic

B)  existential

C)  psychodynamic

D)  cognitive

 

 

15. (67) The form of therapy that helps clients recognize errors in logic, and try out new interpretations of events is:

A)  psychodynamic

B)  Gestalt

C)  cognitive

D)  humanistic

 

 

16. (62) Evidence that supports the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapies has come from:

A)  longitudinal experimental studies

B)  individual case studies

C)  controlled correlational studies

D)  carefully controlled experiments

 

 

17.  (52)If a person had schizophrenia, one would suspect a problem with which of these neurotransmitters?

A)  gamma-aminobutyric acid

B)  dopamine

C)  serotonin

D)  norepinephrine

 

 

18.  (73)“You can do anything you want. You can lead a perfectly useless life. It is all up to you.” A therapist who would say these frustrating statements as a primary part of the therapy process would follow the ______ tradition.

A)  cognitive

B)  existential

C)  humanistic

D)  psychodynamic

 

 

19.  (73)Therapists who often deliberately frustrate and challenge their clients, and who often use role playing and a “here and now” orientation, are:

A)  gestalt

B)  neo-Freudian

C)  cognitive-behavioral

D)  humanistic

 

 

20.  (67)If a patient is being guided to challenge irrational thinking and to try out new interpretations, the patient is most likely being treated by a follower of:

A)  Beck

B)  Freud

C)  Bandura

D)  Wolpe

 

 

21. (65) Systematic desensitization has been shown to be especially effective in the treatment of:

A)  bipolar disorders

B)  schizophrenia

C)  phobias

D)  substance abuse disorders

 

 

22. (69) “When we try to establish how abnormality develops, we need to consider how individuals deal with the meaning of life, and with the value they find in living.” A psychologist from which background would agree most strongly with this statement?

A)  cognitive-behavioral

B)  humanistic-existential

C)  psychodynamic

D)  cognitive

 

 

23.  (50)Imagine that you subscribe to the sociocultural model of abnormality. Which of the following would be a part of your paradigm?

A)  the humanistic-existential model

B)  the family-social perspective

C)  the cognitive model

D)  the psychodynamic model

 

 

24. (58) A woman has had an abortion for which she feels very guilty and as a result takes a strong pro-life stance. The defense mechanism that best explains her behavior is:

A)  reaction formation

B)  denial

C)  regression

D)  projection

 

 

25. (52) Depression has been linked to which neurotransmitter abnormality?

A)  low activity of GABA

B)  absence of dopamine

C)  low activity of serotonin

D)  excessive activity of norepinephrine

 

 

26. (85) Combining any two or more treatment techniques results in an approach is called:

A)  eclectic

B)  reciprocal

C)  couple therapy

D)  group therapy

 

 

27. (77) If a mother seems excessively involved in her child's life such that they do not seem to be independent people, their relationship is said to be:

A)  externalized

B)  cultural

C)  enmeshed

D)  disengaged

 

 

28. (56) Freud believed that the three central forces that shape the personality were the:

A)  instincts, the ego, and the self

B)  biological forces, culture, and learning

C)  consciousness, unconsciousness, and instincts

D)  instinctual needs, rational thinking, and moral standards

 

 

29. (82) Which of the following explanations for the higher levels of anorexia nervosa in Western cultures is consistent with a multicultural model?

A)  Thin people are subject to prejudice and discrimination in hiring

B)  The standards for male body types are more limited than for female body types

C)  The media set an unreasonably small ideal body type for women

D)  Obesity levels are rising among school children

 

 

30. (55) Which of the following is an antipsychotic drug?

A)  Valium

B)  Zoloft

C)  Risperdal

D)  lithium

 

 

31. (50) The paradigm or model adopted by people in the Middle Ages to explain abnormal behavior would have been:

A)  sociocultural

B)  biological

C)  cognitive

D)  demonological

 

 

32. (50) The model of abnormality that examines the effects of society and culture is the:

A)  behavioral model

B)  sociocultural model

C)  psychodynamic model

D)  humanistic-existential model

 

 

33. (84) Which of the following statements is the best example of the biopsychosocial perspective?

A)  There is one legitimate approach to understanding mental disorders

B)  Abnormality is best explained by sociocultural stresses a person experiences

C)  Eclectic approaches fail to take interactions of various models into account

D)  Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, emotional, and cultural influences

 

 

34. (75) The model of abnormality that pays particular attention to a client's family structure, societal norms, and a client's roles in society is:

A)  existential

B)  cognitive-behavioral

C)  sociocultural

D)  humanistic

 

 

35. (51) According to the analogy used in your textbook, the amygdala is most like a:

A)  state

B)  continent

C)  country

D)  hemisphere

 

 

36. (59) The motivation to form relationships with others is a central theme of:

A)  ego theory

B)  self theory

C)  psychoanalytic theory

D)  object relations theory

 

 

37. (65) The first step in using the treatment called “systematic desensitization” is to:

A)  construct a fear hierarchy

B)  construct a list of useful reinforcers

C)  confront the client with the feared stimulus or thought

D)  teach the skill of relaxation over the course of several sessions

 

 

38. (76) David Rosenhan sent “pseudopatients” to a mental hospital where they pretended to be disturbed. The results led him to conclude that ______ greatly impacts mental illness.

A)  an actual symptom

B)  the community mental health system

C)  labeling

D)  communication

 

 

39. (54) A person reports experiencing tension and anxiety, but not mood swings. If a drug is prescribed as part of the treatment, the drug most likely would be:

A)  Prozac

B)  Risperdal

C)  lithium

D)  Xanax

 

 

40. (63) Theory focused on learned responses to the environment is usually described as:

A)  psychoanalytic

B)  behavioral

C)  sociocultural

D)  psychodynamic

 

 

41. (50) The model of abnormality that concentrates on thinking is the:

A)  cognitive model

B)  behavioral model

C)  sociocultural model

D)  psychodynamic model

 

 

42. (71) The term for the form of psychotherapy pioneered by Carl Rogers is:

A)  client-centered

B)  insight

C)  Gestalt

D)  existential

 

 

43. (82) Current multicultural perspectives are most likely to focus on:

A)  the inferiority of particular cultural groups

B)  the cultural deprivation that is characteristic of some groups

C)  the limitations of a focus on ethnicity

D)  the special external pressures faced by members of a culture

 

 

44. (80) If a therapist advised you to pay attention to how you were communicating with family members and to change harmful patterns, the therapist would most likely be practicing:

A)  structural family therapy

B)  conjoint family therapy

C)  feminist therapy

D)  self-help therapy

 

 

45. (64) When a young child yells and throws toys (“temper tantrum”), the parents give the child a good deal of attention. As time goes on, the temper tantrums become more and more common. A behavioral psychologist would say that the temper tantrums result from:

A)  unresolved intrapsychic conflict

B)  operant conditioning

C)  unconditional positive regard

D)  neurotransmitter imbalances

 

 

46. (64) A previously neutral environmental event that becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus is called a(n):

A)  learned stimulus

B)  conditioned stimulus

C)  unconditioned stimulus

D)  discriminative stimulus

 

 

47. (53) In how many cases of psychological disorders have psychologists identified an individual gene that appears to be responsible?

A)  virtually all

B)  most but not all

C)  about half

D)  virtually none

 

 

48. (53) One who takes an evolutionary perspective with respect to abnormal behavior would be most likely to agree that:

A)  genome mapping is a waste of time

B)  the evolution of adaptive and maladaptive behavior is fundamentally different

C)  at one time what is now often seen as abnormal helped us survive

D)  people can inherit physical but not mental capacities

 

 

49. (85) Imagine that a man inherits the tendency to be socially awkward. That leads him to choose inappropriate romantic partners who increase his level of stress. A biopsychosocial therapist would use the ______ effects explanation of his functioning.

A)  cognitive

B)  cultural

C)  reciprocal

D)  deterministic

 

 

50. (60) A patient participates in weekly therapy for several years, gradually becoming aware of the impact of early life events on present functioning. The form of psychotherapy the patient is receiving is called:

A)  cognitive therapy

B)  drug therapy

C)  psychodynamic therapy

D)  behavior therapy